Date of Award
Bachelor of Arts (BA)
College of Science
Jason T. Eastman
Louis E. Keiner
This study assessed gender and racial/ethnic differences in gender-related discrimination and psychological distress within a sample of transgender and gender nonconforming individuals. Prior research suggests transgender individuals with multiple minority statuses experience higher psychological stress than their singly disadvantaged counterparts, and both minority race/ethnicity and transgender minorities experience more frequent and severe forms of discrimination than white and cisgender individuals. Using data from a convenience sample of 101 self-identified transgender and gender nonconforming adults recruited through LGBTQ+ organizations from across North America, I analyzed the relationship between race/ethnicity, gender-related minority stress, and psychological distress. Gender-related discrimination and gender-related victimization did not significantly differ by gender identity or race/ethnicity. However, racial/ethnic minorities reported significantly higher psychological distress than white participants. While being a racial/ethnic minority may not directly worsen one's experiences with gender-related discrimination and victimization, other factors, such as experiences with race related discrimination, may contribute to disparities in mental health.
Millar, Krystina and Eastman, Jason, "Double Jeopardy: Minority Stress and the Influence of Transgender Identity and Race/Ethnicity" (2019). Honors Theses. 327.
Available for download on Sunday, May 10, 2020