Date of Award

Spring 6-15-2020

Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science (BS)




College of Science

First Advisor




It has long since been a tradition for baseball players to use weighted bats in the on-deck circle and for many sport companies to market these training aids with promises to “increase swing velocity” and “improve hand speed and strength”. Increased research in the area has indicated the potential adverse effects of weighted-bat warm up, including potential impacts on swing mechanics, bat swing velocity, and anticipation timing. Since bat swing velocity and interceptive timing are crucial elements to success in baseball and softball batting, there is a need to further investigate the effects of weighted bat warm-up. In this study, female subjects will perform several maximal effort swings with a softball bat following two different warm-up conditions. They will partake in a total of three different sessions: an initial familiarization session and two more subsequent experimental trials that will utilize the Modified Bassin anticipation timer (Lafayette Instruments) to simulate a game-like hitting scenario. Data relevant to anticipation timing, bat swing velocity, temporal error and subjective swing perception will be recorded and properly analyzed. Research examining the effects of weighted implement warm up on performance has primarily centered on the measured outcome of swing velocity. Collectively, results have demonstrated little impact of a weighted bat warm up on actual bat swing velocity. Findings from research that investigates subjective-objective mismatches of perceived versus actual bat swing velocity, however, seems to suggest that a weighted implement warm-up can influence an individual’s perceived “kinesthetic aftereffects” and subsequently affect their anticipation-timing performance.