Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Educational Leadership


College of Education and Social Sciences

First Advisor

Deborah Conner

Second Advisor

Anthony Setari

Third Advisor

Kay Keels


Strategic instructional resourcing has become an important topic in public education, the most lucrative and expensive business in the United States. It is estimated which the United States spends about $612.7 billion annually on public education. This study will analyze and synthesize data from Title I schools in South Carolina, specifically in the area of resource allocation and its relationship to student academic success. Historically, public education has provided all citizens with an equal and equitable opportunity to receive an adequate education. Over time, access to strong public education can impact the lives of students with regard to social mobility.

Instructional leadership is a term which appeared during the 1970s through the research conducted by Ronald Edmonds. In his publications Edmonds found which school leaders who focused on learning in their actions and conversations throughout the school year had a deeper impact on student learning. This was a significant discovery because school leaders during this time focused more on inspiring students and stakeholders to work together towards a common goal. These leaders had qualities of what is referred to as being a “transformational leader”, which meant a leader devoted to reflecting on student data and what/how teachers teach. Prior to this point, teachers were regarded as the experts and the reason why students learned or did not learn. After this research was published, school leaders were determined to have the biggest impact on student learning. School leaders who were most effective had a strong focus on areas including: collective efficacy, evidence, implementation, learning, student engagement, and instructional strategies.

This research study is designed to examine how Title I high schools in the state of South Carolina are resourcing their Title I funds. Studies have shown which schools which practice effective and efficient specific instructional resourcing improve their students’ academic success. This paper will also explore what steps schools execute before making strategic instructional resourcing decisions.

Keywords: Funding, per-pupil expenditure, equity, quality education, social mobility, socioeconomic status, achievement gap, adequacy, Title I, instructional leadership, six principles of instructional leadership, strategic resourcing, instructional resourcing, English language learner (ELL), socioeconomic disadvantage (SED), special education (SPED), end of course tests (EOC), graduation rate, college and career readiness assessments