Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)




College of Education and Social Sciences

First Advisor

Suzanne Horn

Second Advisor

Keshav Jagannathan

Third Advisor

Jaime McCauley


This study was designed to explore how race and gender impact student success in a southeastern state. A mixed-methods design was implemented so that the quantitative data could be further explained and explored using qualitative research. The quantitative analysis was conducted using a three-factor ANOVA to analyze the number of days a student misses due to suspension and the number of grade level retentions; race, gender, and the district a student attends were used as the independent variables in the analyses. Purposive sampling and the development of a script for the qualitative interviews followed the quantitative analyses. Interviews with administrators in one district within the southeastern state were conducted to further explore the impact of race and gender on discipline and student grade level retention. The results of this study highlight the need for schools and districts to evaluate their discipline practices and explore the disparate number of males who are being retained in a grade level.

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